To plant a seedling in the spring, you should catch the time between the thawing of the soil and the beginning of sap flow, in the fall – between the period of rest and the onset of frost. In the second case, it is easier to choose the optimal interval – the timing of planting fruit trees is more flexible.
Summary of the article:
The climate within the regions is significantly different, therefore the planting time is different. Detailed information on when you can plant seedlings is presented in the table.
Important! Work is carried out 20-30 days before the onset of stable frosts.
Planting is performed after leaf fall. At what temperature are trees planted? The optimal temperature regime is 0 … + 10 ° C and air humidity up to 85%. The root system will develop until the temperature drops to + 4 ° C.
Is it possible to plant seedlings of fruit trees on the site in the fall, if the frosts came ahead of time – the answer is no. The seedling will not be able to take root. The plant is added dropwise until spring in a greenhouse. The tree is buried 2/3 into the ground, at an angle of 45 ° C.
Cons and pros for autumn planting
By the end of the first month of autumn, most of the garden work was completed. The gardener has time to take care of the garden. Autumn planting has a number of other advantages:
- in September-October, a large selection of plants is presented at markets and nurseries;
- most pests are inactive;
- care is simplified – just a couple of waterings;
- in autumn and winter, the seedling will undergo natural hardening in the natural environment;
- the opportunity to get the harvest next year.
The main disadvantage is the difficulty in determining the landing time due to unpredictable weather conditions. Young and fragile seedlings are not always able to survive the cold winter with little snow.
Rodents are dangerous to plants – they can damage the bark.
What types of trees are planted in autumn
Raspberries, gooseberries and honeysuckle can be transplanted in autumn in all regions of Russia. Ornamental trees adapt well and tolerate winter: conifers, birch, chokeberry. Which trees tolerate wintering well in central Russia:
Important! Planting peaches, apricots, almonds is postponed until spring.
Choose winter-hardy zoned varieties. Heat-loving species do not tolerate winter well. It is not recommended to purchase seedlings that were dug out before the end of the leaf fall – they have immature wood.
Stages of tree planting
When planting trees before winter, seedlings with a closed root system adapt faster. They are planted in a pit prepared in advance by the transshipment method – together with an earthen lump. The seedling is pre-hardened: it is brought out daily in partial shade, increasing the time spent on the street every day.
Choosing a landing site
Most of the plants bear fruit well when planted on the southern side of the site and low groundwater. Stone fruit crops will not yield good yields in low light conditions. Sometimes a staggered planting is organized in the garden – tall trees are planted to the north, and low-growing ones to the south.
Observe agricultural techniques:
- the apricot languishes next to the cherry;
- the apple tree oppresses the peach and cherry plum;
- a plum will not give a good harvest when planted near pears and apple trees;
- peach is not planted with cherries and cherries;
- walnuts should not be grown next to fruit.
When choosing a place, the sizes of the crown and root system are taken into account. It is not recommended to plant fruit trees closer than 4 m from buildings. The root system can compromise the integrity of the foundation.
The earth, which was taken out during the digging of the hole, is mixed with the rotted mullein in equal proportions. It is not recommended to use fresh manure – the fertilizer will burn the roots of the plant. If the soil is clayey, add 40 liters of river sand to the substrate.
Important! Add 1 tbsp to the pit. wood ash and 1 tbsp. superphosphate.
The composition of the soil depends on the type of plant. The optimal composition for an apple tree: garden soil, peat, turf, compost, sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 2: 2: 1.
When buying, choose seedlings aged 1-2 years. Shoots should be lignified and matured.
Before planting, dry, rotten and moldy root areas are removed using a pruner. Before planting, the plant is soaked in water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate for a day.
The depth and width of the planting pit depend on the size of the seedling. A pit 40×60 cm in size is prepared for stone fruit crops, 80×80 cm for pome crops.
If the root system is large, the size of the pit is increased. The pit is dug a couple of days before planting. How to plant seedlings correctly:
- Crushed stone or pebbles are poured at the bottom for drainage.
- To enrich the plant with humus, sod is placed with the grass turned upside down.
- A peg is installed for support.
- The plant is placed in the center of the pit, the roots are straightened.
- The tree is watered.
- The pit is covered with a substrate, the soil is tamped.
Immediately after planting, a near-stem circle of 30-40 cm is formed. Weeds are removed around the seedling, the soil is constantly loosened. For the winter, the trunk circle is mulched with peat, spruce needles or rotted leaves.
The next day after planting, the seedling is watered. On average, 5 liters of water are required for raspberries and gooseberries, and 10 liters for an apple tree. Further, at moderate humidity, watering is performed once every 20 days.
Features of further care after transplant:
- To prevent the tree from being damaged by mice, pieces of felt dipped in creolin are laid out next to the trunk.
- For the winter, the plant is covered with spruce branches, the planting site is covered with snow.
- To protect the trunk at the point of attachment to the support, it is wrapped in rags or moss.
Important! To protect against sunburn, the tree trunk is wrapped in white burlap.
In case of heavy snowfalls, the landing site is cleared of snow so that young branches do not break. To protect against breakage from autumn, the branches of the crown are pulled together with soft material.
Tips from the Experienced
The main mistake is the desire to buy a seedling in early September, long before planting. Early purchase and planting leads to the death of the seedling in winter.
Listen to the recommendations of experienced gardeners:
- Trees designed for the climate of the southern regions are not suitable for planting in Siberia.
- Saplings with smooth bark should not be whitened. The ban applies to branches and trunks.
- Do not overuse organic matter and nitrogen fertilizers. The plant may start growing and will not have time to prepare for winter.
- Immediately after the autumn planting, crown pruning is not performed.
Another common mistake when planting fruit trees in the fall is creating deep holes. The lower the root collar is, the higher the risk of decay. It should be 5 cm above the surface of the earth – for pear, apple, peach, cherry plum. Cherries and cherries – no more than 4 cm.
There are no universal dates for the autumn planting of fruit trees and shrubs. Navigate your own load, long-term weather forecast, grade.